Muslim conquest of Persia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Muslim conquest of Persia Part of the Muslim conquests IslamicConquestsIroon.png Map of Persia and its surrounding regions on the eve of the Muslim invasions Date 633–654 Location Mesopotamia, Caucasus, Persia, and Greater Khorasan Result Decisive Rashidun victory Territorial changes
Fall of the Sasanian Empire Rise of several dynasties in Tabaristan
Belligerents Sasanian Empire Caucasian Albania (633–636) Arab Christians (633–637) Kanārangīyāns (633–651) House of Ispahbudhan (633–651) House of Mihran (633–651) House of Karen (633–654) Dabuyids (642–651) Hephthalites (651–654) Rashidun Caliphate Kanārangīyāns (after 651) Commanders and leaders See list [hide]
Yazdegerd III Rostam Farrokhzad † Mahbudhan Huzail ibn Imran Hormozd Jadhuyih Anoshagan † Andarzaghar Bahman Jadhuyih † Piruz Khosrow † Jaban Mihran Bahram-i Chubin Hormuzan (POW) Mardanshah † Bahram Isfandiyar Surrendered Jalinus † Mihran Razi † Nakhiragan Azadbeh Farrukhzad Surrendered Siyavakhsh † Shahriyar bin Kanara † Busbuhra (DOW) Shahriyar of Derbent † Farrukbandadh † Grigor † Mihran-i Hamadani † Shahrvaraz Jadhuyih † Karin † Mushegh III † Varaztirots † Muta † Narsi Tiruyih Kanadbak Surrendered Ruzbih † Shirzad Mardanshah of Damavand Surrendered Javanshir Burzin Shah Mahoe Suri Surrendered Shahriyar Siyah al-Uswari Surrendered Aparviz Surrendered Shahrag † Faylakan Yazdanfar Surrendered
See list [hide]
Abu Bakr(633-634) Umar I Ali Ibn Abi Talib Khalid ibn al-Walid (633-634) al-Muthanna ibn Haritha (WIA) Abu Ubayd † Saad ibn Abi Waqqas Zuhra ibn Al-Hawiyya Hashim ibn Uthba Qa’qa ibn Amr Abu Musa Ashaari Ammar ibn Yasir Nouman ibn Muqarrin Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman Mugheera ibn Shuba Usman ibn Abi al-Aas Asim ibn Amr Ahnaf ibn Qais Abdullah ibn Aamir Bukayr ibn Abdallah Kanadbak (after 651) Busbuhra (briefly) Farrukhzad (only at Ray)
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Muslim conquest of Persia [show]
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Early Muslim expansion
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran,, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia.
The rise of Muslims coincided with an unprecedented political, social, economic and military weakness in Persia. Once a major world power, the Sasanian Empire had exhausted its human and material resources after decades of warfare against the Byzantine Empire. The internal political situation quickly deteriorated after the execution of King Khosrow II in 628 AD. Subsequently, ten new claimants were enthroned within the next four years. With conflict erupting between Persian and Parthian factions, the empire was no longer centralized.
Arab Muslims first attacked the Sassanid territory in 633, when general Khalid ibn Walid invaded Mesopotamia (Sassanid province of Asōristān; what is now Iraq), which was the political and economic center of the Sassanid state. Following the transfer of Khalid to the Byzantine front in the Levant, the Muslims eventually lost their holdings to Sassanian counterattacks. The second invasion began in 636 under Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, when a key victory at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah led to the permanent end of Sasanian control west of Iran. The Zagros mountains then became a natural barrier and border between the Rashidun Caliphate and the Sassanid Empire. Due to continuous raids by Persians into the area, Caliph Umar ordered a full invasion of the Sasanian empire in 642, which led to the complete conquest of the Sasanians around 651.a[›] Directing from Medina, a few thousand kilometres from the battlefields of Iran, Caliph Umar's quick conquest of Iran in a series of well-coordinated, multi-pronged attacks became his greatest triumph, contributing to his reputation as a great military and political strategist.
Iranian historians have defended their forebears vis a vis Arab sources to illustrate that "contrary to the claims of some historians, Iranians, in fact, fought long and hard against the invading Arabs." By 651, most of the urban centers in Iranian lands, with the notable exception of the Caspian provinces (Tabaristan) and Transoxiana, had come under the domination of the Arab armies. Many localities fought against the invaders; ultimately, none were successful. In fact, although Arabs had established hegemony over most of the country, many cities rose in rebellion by killing the Arab governor or attacking their garrisons. Eventually, military reinforcements quashed the insurgency and imposed Islamic control. The violent subjugation of Bukhara is a case in point: Conversion to Islam was gradual, partially as the result of this violent resistance; however, Zoroastrian scriptures were burnt and many priests were executed. However, the Persians began to reassert themselves by maintaining Persian language and culture. Islam would become the dominant religion late in the medieval ages.